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Text 15723, 550 rader
Skriven 2020-09-25 09:05:20 av Sean Dennis (1:18/200.0)
Ärende: The Weekly ARRL Letter
   The ARRL Letter                                                         
   September 24, 2020                                                      
     * MARS Communications Exercise to Involve Amateur Radio Community      
     * Venerable AO-7 Satellite Approaching a Return to Full Solar          
     * FCC Grants Waiver Permitting Garmin to Market a Combination Part     
       95/Part 25 Device                                                    
     * ARRL Podcasts Schedule                                              
     * IARU Region 1 President Sounds Alarm on Wireless Power Transfer for 
     * The K7RA Solar Update                                               
     * Just Ahead in Radiosport                                            
     * Hams Help Find Kids by Monitoring FRS Channel                       
     * "Foghorn" is Back on the Bands, IARU Monitoring Service Reports     
     * Announcements                                                       
     * Phil Temples, K9HI, Appointed as New England Division Vice Director 
     * In Brief...                                                         
     * Upcoming ARRL Section, State, and Division Conventions              
   MARS Communications Exercise to Involve Amateur Radio Community         
   Military Auxiliary Radio System (MARS) volunteers will take part in the 
   Department of Defense (DOD) Communications Exercise 20-4, starting on   
   October 3 and concluding on October 26. The MARS focus is               
   interoperability with ARRL and the amateur radio community.             
   "Throughout the month of October, MARS members will interoperate with   
   various amateur radio organizations that will be conducting their       
   annual simulated emergency tests with state, county, and local          
   emergency management personnel," said MARS Chief Paul English, WD8DBY.  
   "MARS members will send a DOD-approved message to the amateur radio     
   organizations recognizing this cooperative interoperability effort."    
   MARS members will also train with the ARRL National Traffic System      
   (NTS) and Radio Relay International (RRI) to send ICS 213 general       
   messages to numerous amateur radio leaders across the US.               
   "This exercise will culminate with MARS Auxiliarists sending a number   
   of summary messages in support of a larger DOD communications exercise  
   taking place October 20 - 26," English added. Throughout the month of   
   October, MARS stations will operate on 60 meters, and WWV/WWVH will     
   broadcast messages to the amateur radio community. English assures no   
   disruption to communications throughout the month-long series of        
   training events.                                                        
   Venerable AO-7 Satellite Approaching a Return to Full Solar             
   AMSAT-OSCAR 7 (AO-7), the oldest amateur radio satellite still in       
   operation, is nearing a return to full illumination by the sun, which   
   should take place around September 25 and continue until around         
   December 26. AMSAT's vice president of operations Drew Glasbrenner,     
   KO4MA, says that during this period, AO-7 likely will switch between    
   modes A (2 meters up/10 meters down) and B (70 centimeters up/2 meters  
   down) every 24 hours. He reminded users to use only the minimum         
   necessary power and to avoid "ditting" to find their signals in the     
   passband, which can bounce the entire passband up and down and          
   sometimes even cause the transponder to reset to mode A.                
   "Try to find yourself with very low power, or on SSB, or best, with     
   full Doppler control," Glasbrenner said. "If you have to use high power 
   to find yourself, your receive antenna and system probably needs        
   Last May, the nearly 46-year-old AO-7 made possible a contact between   
   Argentina and South Africa -- a distance of more than 4,300 miles. Both 
   stations were aiming just 2Aø or 3Aø above the horizon. AO-7 only works 
   when it's receiving direct sunlight and shuts down when in eclipse.     
   Launched in 1974, AO-7 surprised the amateur satellite community by     
   suddenly coming back to life in 2002 after being dormant for nearly 30  
   years and periodically re-emerging. AMSAT considers AO-7                
   "semi-operational." Theory is that AO-7 initially went dark after       
   several years of operation when a battery shorted, and it returned to   
   operation when the short circuit opened. With no working batteries,     
   AO-7 now only functions when it's receiving direct sunlight, and it     
   shuts down when in eclipse.                                             
   Built by a multinational team under AMSAT's direction, AO-7 carries a   
   non-inverting Mode A transponder (145.850 - 950 MHz up/29.400 - 500 MHz 
   down) and an inverting Mode B (432.180 - 120 MHz up/145.920 - 980 MHz   
   down) linear transponder. AO-7 has beacons on 29.502 and 145.975 MHz,   
   used in conjunction with Mode A and Mode B/C (low-power mode B),        
   respectively. A 435.100 MHz beacon has an intermittent problem,         
   sometimes switching between 400 mW and 10 mW.                           
   FCC Grants Waiver Permitting Garmin to Market a Combination Part        
   95/Part 25 Device                                                       
   The FCC has granted the request of Garmin International for a waiver of 
   Section 95.2761 of the FCC's rules, permitting it to obtain equipment   
   certification for a handheld unit that combines a low-power,            
   terrestrial Part 95 Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) transmitter and a    
   Part 25 emergency satellite communication module in the same device.    
   The FCC responded to Garmin's request in an Order released on September 
   21. Section 95.2761(c) precludes combining MURS transmitting            
   capabilities in equipment that is also capable of transmitting in       
   another service, with the exception of Part 15 unlicensed services.     
   The FCC said it determined that it would be in the public interest to   
   waive Section 95.2761(c), so that Garmin may obtain authorization to    
   produce its proposed handheld device.                                   
   "We find here that Garmin's proposed device contains an important       
   public safety feature, which would not be brought to market if we were  
   to strictly enforce the rules in this case. As Garmin noted in its      
   request, the certified Part 25 module in the MURS unit would allow      
   emergency communication to the outside world at the push of a button."  
   Garmin's proposed product would include two transmitters: a low-power   
   MURS transmitter for short-range terrestrial communication, and a       
   previously certified Part 25 module that would allow emergency          
   communication via the Iridium satellite system under a blanket license  
   held by Iridium. End users would have to subscribe to the Iridium       
   Garmin argued in its petition that the purpose of the original          
   equipment authorization restriction was "to prevent consumer confusion  
   with other terrestrial services that either had different licensing     
   regimes or were for different types of communications" and that it is   
   inappropriate in this case.                                             
   "We agree with Garmin that its device's intended use does not flout the 
   purpose of Section 95.2761(c)," the FCC said in its Order. "Garmin      
   maintains that the Part 95 MURS transmitter and the Part 25 module      
   operate on different frequencies and will not operate simultaneously.   
   Provided the device is constructed in this manner, we are persuaded     
   that its dual purposes will be well segregated."                        
   ARRL Podcasts Schedule                                                  
   The latest episode of the On the Air podcast (Episode 9) features a     
   discussion on how to tune HF signals and use transceiver tools to       
   enhance reception. The On the Air podcast is a monthly companion to On  
   the Air magazine, ARRL's magazine for beginner-to-intermediate ham      
   radio operators.                                                        
   The latest episode of Eclectic Tech podcast (Episode 17) features a     
   discussion of how RSID is used to identify HF digital modes, and a chat 
   with Bob Allison, WB1GCM, about mysterious Long Delayed Echoes.         
   The On the Air and Eclectic Tech podcasts are sponsored by Icom. Both   
   podcasts are available on iTunes (iOS) and Stitcher (Android) as well   
   as on Blubrry -- On the Air | Eclectic Tech.                            
   IARU Region 1 President Sounds Alarm on Wireless Power Transfer for     
   International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) Region 1 President Don         
   Beattie, G3BJ, wants to raise greater awareness regarding the           
   interference potential of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles 
   (WPT-EV). He is urging IARU member-societies to contact national        
   regulators to make them aware of the technology's potential for "RF     
   pollution." Beattie notes that WPT-EV chargers can run as much as 20    
   WPT-EV was on the agenda for World Radiocommunication Conference 2019   
   (WRC-19). The International Telecommunication                           
   Union (ITU) Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) conducted studies to      
   assess the impact of WPT-EV on radiocommunications and suitable         
   harmonized frequency ranges. Those ITU-R studies identified the 19 - 25 
   kHz band, as well as bands in the 50 kHz and 60 kHz range, for          
   high-power WPT-EV, and the 79 - 90 kHz band for medium-power WPT-EV.    
   The consensus of WRC-19 delegates was to make no changes in the ITU     
   Radio Regulations with respect to WPT-EV.                               
   The Netherlands' IARU member-society VERON has posted the text          
   (translated into Dutch) of Beattie's remarks on the subject.            
   "The discussions about WPT-EV have reached a point where they are       
   moving from the technical to the political arena," Beattie said.        
   "Discussions with a national regulator indicate that we must now take   
   action at the national level. The amateur service, but also other       
   telecommunication services, will experience the consequences of         
   Beattie urged member-societies in Region 1 to contact national          
   regulators, preferably in person, to explain why radio amateurs are so  
   concerned. He pointed out that long charging times in populated areas   
   could generate harmonics that make radio communication very difficult.  
   "Models show that this also applies to the wider environment of a       
   WPT-EV installation," Beattie said. "Broadcasters, stationary, and      
   [IMG]mobile services share these concerns" and provided input to CEPT   
   Electronic Communications Committee Report 289.                         
   Beattie noted that the WPT-EV discussion has been going on for a long   
   time. The technology is similar to that used for wireless charging of   
   cell phones.                                                            
   "The wireless charging of electric cars is done with large coils," he   
   explained. "One of them on the ground under the vehicle, the second in  
   the car. Typically, about 22 kW is transferred wirelessly through those 
   coils. This is done using frequencies between 79 and 90 kHz. Technical  
   and operational standards for WPT-EV are under development."            
   WPT-EV developers are seeking noise level limits that are some 30 - 45  
   dB above current noise levels, Beattie said. "Limits that have a        
   serious negative effect on the radio spectrum," he asserted.            
   "In the interests of the future of amateur radio, we need to get the    
   attention of national regulators," Beattie concluded. "This is about    
   the future of amateur radio!"                                           
   The K7RA Solar Update                                                   
   Tad Cook, K7RA, Seattle, reports: Up until September 23, we saw 32      
   consecutive days with no sunspots. Then new sunspot group AR2773 came   
   into view, with a magnetic signature indicating that it's part of new   
   Solar Cycle 25. According to Spaceweather.com, AR2773 is a weak sunspot 
   group and may not persist for long. The daily sunspot number for        
   September 23 was 13, indicating three sunspots visible in that group.   
   Average daily solar flux rose from 69.2 to 71.1 over the reporting week 
   of September 17 - 23. Geomagnetic indicators were about the same, with  
   average daily planetary A index declining from 5.3 to 5.1.              
   Predicted solar flux for the next 45 days is 73 on September 24 -       
   October 1, and 70 on October 2 - November 2.                            
   Predicted planetary A index is 12, 15, 12, 25, and 15 on September 24 - 
   28; 8 on September 29 - 30; 5 on October 1 - 10; 10 on October 11; 5 on 
   October 12 - 19; 10, 12, 16, 28, 18, and 10 on October 20 - 25; 5 on    
   October 26 - November 6, and 10 on November 7.                          
   The SciTechDaily article "How NASA & Scientists Around the World Track  
   the Solar Cycle" is an interesting read.                                
   Sunspot numbers for September 17 - 23 were 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, and 13,    
   with a mean of 1.9. The 10.7-centimeter flux was 69.7, 69.9, 70.6,      
   70.2, 71.3, 72.4, and 73.3, with a mean of 71.1. Estimated planetary A  
   indices were 4, 5, 3, 4, 3, 6, and 11, with a mean of 5.1. Middle       
   latitude A index was 5, 4, 4, 4, 3, 5, and 10, with a mean of 5.        
   A comprehensive K7RA Solar Update is posted Fridays on the ARRL         
   website. For more information concerning radio propagation, visit the   
   ARRL Technical Information Service, read "What the Numbers Mean...,"    
   and check out K9LA's Propagation Page.                                  
   A propagation bulletin archive is available. For customizable           
   propagation charts, visit the VOACAP Online for Ham Radio website.      
   Share your reports and observations.                                    
   Just Ahead in Radiosport                                                
     * September 26 -- AGCW VHF/UHF Contest (CW)                           
     * September 26 - 27 -- Worldwide DX Contest, RTTY                     
     * September 26 - 27 -- Maine QSO Party (CW, phone)                    
     * September 28 -- RSGB FT4 Contest Series                             
     * September 29 -- 222 MHz Fall Sprint (CW, phone)                     
     * September 30 -- UKEICC 80-Meter Contest (CW)                        
   Hams Help Find Kids by Monitoring FRS Channel                           
   Late on the afternoon of September 16, the police department in Post    
   Falls, Idaho, received a 911 call that two juveniles -- ages 9 and 11   
   -- were missing from a Post Falls residence for about an hour.          
   According to the report, the pair had left home intending to play in    
   the neighborhood with some Family Radio Service (FRS) radios. Several   
   patrol cars were dispatched to the area to conduct a visual search, and 
   detective Neil Uhrig, K7NJU, responded as officer in charge due to his  
   training and experience with missing persons investigations. The        
   initial search focused on a 2-mile radius from the missing kids'        
   One officer received information from witnesses that the pair was       
   probably using FRS Channel 1 (462.5625 MHz). An officer returned to     
   police headquarters to retrieve some FRS radios for distribution to the 
   patrol officers, in the event they might be able to hear the youngsters 
   Uhrig, meanwhile, pulled out his VHF/UHF handheld with the thought of   
   setting up FRS Channel 1 as an auxiliary frequency, but without the     
   manual at hand, he wasn't able to execute the channel setup. But Uhrig  
   did hear the Northwest Traffic Net (NWTN) that had begun at 6:30 PM on  
   the local 2-meter repeater.                                             
   Checking into the net at about 6:45 PM, Uhrig explained the missing     
   persons situation to net control station Shannon Riley, KJ7MUA, and     
   asked if net participants in the Post Falls area with FRS capability    
   could listen for the youngsters talking.                                
   A number of stations promptly checked in to say they had FRS radios and 
   were monitoring FRS Channel 1. It was assumed that only stations        
   located near the missing youngsters would hear them, given the limited  
   range of FRS radios.                                                    
   Not long after 7 PM, Jim Hager, KJ7OTD, reported hearing children       
   talking on FRS Channel 1. Uhrig went to Hager's home to confirm his     
   observation, and the patrol units were redirected to the new search     
   vicinity. A short time later, the missing pair was found safe and       
   returned home.                                                          
   Uhrig said the most remarkable thing about the incident was that the    
   missing youngsters turned out to be some distance from the original     
   search area, and in the opposite direction from where they were thought 
   to have been headed.                                                    
   Net Manager Gabbee Perry, KE7ADN, said, "I'm so proud of what a         
   superior job NWTN NCS Shannon [KJ7MUA] and all the operators did last   
   Wednesday. It was a very unusual situation, but everyone had excellent  
   focus and used their resourcefulness to help quickly find the missing   
   kids." -- Thanks to ARRL Assistant Idaho Section Manager Ed Stuckey,    
   "Foghorn" is Back on the Bands, IARU Monitoring Service Reports         
   The Chinese "Foghorn" over-the-horizon radar (OTH-R) is once again      
   showing up in the logs of the International Amateur Radio Union         
   Monitoring Service (IARUMS) in IARU Region 1 (Europe, the Middle East,  
   and Africa). While the reports reflect what's being heard by stations   
   primarily in Europe, the same interference can and does affect other    
   parts of the world, often depending upon the time of day. Named by      
   former IARUMS Region 1 Coordinator Wolf Hadel, DK2OM, because of its    
   sound, the Foghorn was first reported in 2017 operating in amateur      
   bands. The signal is frequency modulation on pulse (FMOP) with 66.66    
   sweeps-per-second bursts.                                               
   "In August, we found significantly more OTH radars from the Far East,   
   especially the system known as 'Foghorn,'" said IARUMS Region 1         
   Coordinator Peter Jost, HB9CET, noting that the Foghorn facilities      
                                      Chinese "Foghorn" signal waveform.   
                                      [Wolf Hadel, DK2OM]                  
   generate a signal with a bandwidth of 10 kHz. "But also, the notorious  
   Russian 'Contayner' radar still contaminated our bands, especially 20   
   meters, daily."                                                         
   The Foghorn was being heard on 40 meters, in the vicinity of 7113 -     
   7123 kHz and 7165 - 7175 kHz. Other OTH-R signals tracked to, or        
   believed to be in, China are showing up elsewhere on the band with      
   equally broad signals. Some international broadcasters have also set up 
   shop on amateur bands, including Voice of Broad Masses 1 on 7140 kHz,   
   and Voice of Broad Masses 2 on 7180 kHz, both with 9 kHz-wide AM        
   signals. China Radio International has been transmitting at the very    
   bottom edge of 20 meters, its signal slopping over into the amateur     
   band. Chinese OTH-R signals were also monitored at various places on 20 
   Russian "Contayner" OTH-R signals were spotted on several 20-meter      
   frequencies in August. An idling signal on 14,221 kHz is believed to be 
   coming from Kazakhstan, showing up every evening. A Foghorn OTH-R has   
   been appearing in the 14,338 - 14,348 kHz range.                        
   A radio war between Russia and Ukraine has generated signals on 40      
   meters (Russia on 7055 and Ukraine on 7060 kHz), airing what the        
   monitor called "very loud" and persistent signals every day, with       
   "plenty of abuse," propaganda, profanities, and agitation being passed  
   back and forth.                                                         
   AM radars with "huge signals" were reported to be taking up segments on 
   40 and 20 meters. A "monster" F1B signal has been heard on 14,301 kHz.  
   The role of IARUMSƒ**--ƒ**monitoring the amateur bands to search and    
   identify transmissions sent by intrudersƒ**--ƒ**is important, because   
   the amount and variety of intruders is rapidly growing, IARU said. "A   
   number of national monitoring coordinators and volunteers have been     
   watching our bands for many years. But more needs to be done to raise   
   awareness of societies and countries where no national monitoring team  
   exists. Also, existing groups can still help by sharing detailed        
   information worldwide with others. 'Monitoring is Teamwork!'"           
   IARU said it's also very important that as many member-societies as     
   possible file interference complaints with national regulators when     
   intruders are heard.                                                    
     * The ARES E-Letter, ARRL's email newsletter for monthly public       
       service and emergency communications news, has been renamed, The    
       ARES Letter. Members can subscribe to The ARES Letter by visiting   
       their member preferences page and selecting the "Edit Email         
       Subscriptions" tab.                                                 
     * The QSO Today Virtual Ham Expo has announced that all Expo          
       presentations are available by clicking on "August Speaker          
       Presentations" on the right-hand side of the Expo home page.        
       Topping the list is keynote speaker Scott Wright, K0MD, the editor  
       of NCJ, who spoke on "Amateur Radio's Impact on Problem Solving to  
       Create a Global Response to the Pandemic." Presentations spanned    
       topics from "Portable Operating" by John Jacobs, W7DBO, to          
       "Everything you need to know about Lithium Batteries" by Marcel     
       Stieber, AI6MS, and individual presentations given by young hams    
       organized by Carole Perry, WB2MGP. The next QSO Today Virtual Ham   
       Expo is set for March 13 - 14, 2021.                                
     * Mark Aaker, K6UFO, suggested the ScienceDaily article, "Miniature   
       antenna enables robotic teaming in complex environments." The       
       researchers used a 1/50-wavelength antenna with a "modular active   
       matching network" to obtain a three-fold increase in the antenna's  
       3 dB bandwidth and a 10 dB improvement in efficiency, compared to a 
       similarly sized, unmatched antenna.                                 
     * [IMG]TM82ALC will be active during October to commemorate the 290th 
       anniversary of the death in 1730 of Antoine de Lamothe-Cadillac,    
       founder of the City of Detroit, Michigan, event sponsors say. He    
       also once served as the governor of Louisiana. The Detroit          
       Automobile Company was renamed the Cadillac Automobile Company in   
       his honor and adopted the Lamothe-Cadillac coat of arms as its      
       product logo.                                                       
     * November 15 will mark the 75th anniversary of the post-war ARRL     
       DXCC program. The first post-war list of DXCC Countries appeared in 
       the February 1947 edition of QST and contained some 257 countries.  
     * SmallSat 2020 Conference Proceedings are available online. The 34th 
       annual conference was a virtual event that attracted 8,100          
       participants over 3 days. The conference theme was "Space Mission   
       Architectures - Infinite Possibilities."                            
   Phil Temples, K9HI, Appointed as New England Division Vice Director     
   ARRL President Rick Roderick, K5UR, has appointed Phil Temples, K9HI,   
   of Watertown, Massachusetts, as New England Division Vice Director. He  
   succeeds Mike Raisbeck, K1TWF, who was elected earlier this year as     
   ARRL First Vice President. President Roderick made the appointment      
   after consulting with New England Division Director Fred Hopengarten,   
   K1VR, and the region's Section Managers.                                
   "I want to thank all of those who forwarded their recommendations to    
   Director Hopengarten," Temples said. "Mike Raisbeck left some big shoes 
   to fill. I look forward to working with Fred, and to advise and assist  
   him with various tasks and board committee assignments. One task I'm    
   especially eager to tackle is launching a New England Division          
   An ARRL Life Member, Temples has been licensed for 50 years, initially  
   as WN9EAY in Indiana. He has written articles for QST and contributed   
   articles for the ARRL website. He also co-authored a chapter in the     
   Amateur Radio Public Service Handbook.                                  
   Temples served three terms as Eastern Massachusetts Section Manager and 
   now is an Assistant SM and an Assistant New England Division Director.  
   He's also held ARRL field appointments as Affiliated Club Coordinator   
   and Public Information Officer and currently serves as program chair    
   for the Northeast HamXposition.                                         
   Temples has been active in MARS, the National Traffic System, and as an 
   Emergency Coordinator, and he enjoys CW. He holds a degree in           
   electrical engineering from Purdue University.                          
   Temples has actively promoted instruction and licensing and is a        
   Volunteer Examiner under the ARRL, W5YI, and Greater Los Angeles ARG    
   Volunteer Examiner Coordinators. He's currently involved with New       
   England Amateur Radio, Inc. in administering remote exam sessions       
   during the COVID-19 pandemic.                                           
   Temples is employed at Boston College as a computer systems             
   In Brief...                                                             
   After counting the ballots, AMSAT has announced its Board of Directors. 
   In order of votes received, Mark Hammond, N8MH (707); Paul Stoetzer,    
   N8HM (703), and Bruce Paige, KK5DO (667), were elected as AMSAT         
   Directors for terms ending in 2022. Stoetzer, a former Board member and 
   current Executive Vice President, fills the seat being vacated by AMSAT 
   veteran Tom Clark, W3IO. Howie DeFelice, AB2S (550), was elected as     
   first alternate director, and Bob McGwier, N4HY (534), as second        
   alternate director for terms ending in 2021. Jeff Johns, WE4B, received 
   429 votes. -- Thanks to AMSAT News Service                              
   Radio Amateurs of Canada has announced that videos from its Annual      
   Conference and General Meeting earlier this month are now available.    
   All presentations may be viewed on the new RAC YouTube Channel. ARRL    
   President Rick Roderick, K5UR, addressed the meeting. Presentation      
   topics include "Getting Started with Amateur Radio Satellites,"         
   "Amateur Radio and Youth," and "Contesting: Remote Operating." --       
   Thanks to Radio Amateurs of Canada                                      
   Former West Virginia Section Manager Karl Thompson, K8KT, died on July  
   28. He was 80. Thompson, of Charleston, served as West Virginia Section 
   Communications Manager (SCM) from 1979 until 1983, and, after the       
   position was renamed, as Section Manager (SM) from 1984 until 1994.     
   Thompson subsequently served the Section as an Assistant Section        
   Manager and Technical Coordinator. Current West Virginia SM, Dan        
   Ringer, K8WV, said in a message to members, "Karl was one of the        
   best-known amateurs in West Virginia. He represented all of the best of 
   the amateur community." A ham from the age of 15, Thompson was employed 
   by the telephone company (C&P, Bell Atlantic, and Verizon), retiring    
   after 28 years of service. He was president of the West Virginia State  
   Radio Council for several years and was honored with the ARRL Roanoke   
   Division Amateur of the Year award in 1983. He received the ARRL        
   Roanoke Division Service Award that same year. Thompson played guitar,  
   autoharp, and piano and was a member of several singing groups over the 
   years. He co-hosted the Old Time Country Music Hour on WZAC-FM for 4    
   Upcoming ARRL Section, State, and Division Conventions                  
   Note: Many conventions and hamfests have been canceled or postponed due 
   to the coronavirus pandemic. Check the calendar of canceled events on   
   the ARRL website.                                                       
     * November 21 -- Alabama State Convention, Montgomery, Alabama        
     * December 11 - 12 -- Florida State Convention, Plant City, Florida   
   Find conventions and hamfests in your area.                             
   ARRL -- Your One-Stop Resource for                                      
   Amateur Radio News and Information.                                     
     * Join or Renew Today! Eligible US-based members can elect to receive 
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     * Listen to ARRL Audio News, available every Friday.                  
   Subscribe to...                                                         
     * NCJ -- National Contest Journal. Published bimonthly, features      
       articles by top contesters, letters, hints, statistics, scores, NA  
       Sprint, and QSO parties.                                            
     * QEX -- A Forum for Communications Experimenters. Published          
       bimonthly, features technical articles, construction projects,      
       columns, and other items of interest to radio amateurs and          
       communications professionals.                                       
   Free of charge to ARRL members...                                       
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       emergency communications news), the ARRL Contest Update (biweekly   
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   The ARRL Letter is published Thursdays, 50 times each year. ARRL members
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   their profile.                                                          
   Copyright (c) 2020 American Radio Relay League, Incorporated. Use and   
   distribution of this publication, or any portion thereof, is permitted for
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   purposes require written permission.                                    

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